Q. 1. What is Varnas ?

Ans. Varnas is a supposed unification of all the Hindu castes into either four groups : Brahamins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras.


Q. 2. Who were Nomads ?

Ans. People wondering in groups are known as Nomads.


Q. 3. Who were Gond ?

Ans. The name comes from the Telgu word Konda which means a hill.


Q. 4. Who were Ahoms ?

Ans. Ahoms were the important tribal group of Assam.


Q. 5. What was the ancient name of Assam ?

Ans. Kamarupa is the ancient name of Assam.


Q. 6. Name any two dynasties who ruled over Assam at different times ?

Ans. (i) Morans
(ii) Kachans


Q. 7. Why it was impossible to establish a stable government in Assam ?

Ans. Because of the tribal communities were regularly at war with each other.


Q. 8. Who was the founder of Ahom tribal ?

Ans. Sufaka who ruled over Assam in 1298 was the first king of Ahoms.


Q. 9. Why was Garhgaon famous ?

Ans. Being the capital of Ahoms it was famous.


Q. 10. Define the term clan ?

Ans. The term clan refers to a group of families claiming descent from a common ancestor. Tribal organizations are often based on kinship or clan loyalties.

Q. 11. Name any three important tribes living in region of Bengal, Orissa and Bihar.
. (i) The Santhals
(ii) The Mundas
(iii) The Ahoms

Q. 12. Define the term ‘Tanda’.

Ans. The carvan of trader nomads is known as tanda.


Q. 13. What do you mean by term Gondwana ?

Ans. The term Gondwana mean the country inhabited by Gonds.


Q. 14. What is shifting cultivation ?

Ans. The trees and bushes in a forest area are cleared and then burnt. Then the crop is grown on the ashes. When the soil loses it fertility, another piece of and is cleared and planted in the same way.


Q. 15. What were the main occupation of Gond ?

Ans. Shifting agriculture.


Q. 16. Who were known as Raj Gonds ?

Ans. The Gond kingdom which surfaced during the Mughal reign are termed as Raj Gonds.


Q. 17. Who defeated Cheros and when ?

Ans. Raja Man Singh the general of Akbar defeated Cheros in 1591.





Q. 1 Match the following

  Garh Khel
  Tanda Chaurasi
  Labourer Carvan
  Clan Garha Katanga
  Sib Singh Ahom State
  Durgawati Paik


Ans Garh Chaurasi
  Tanda Carvan
  Labourer Paik
  Clan Khel
  Sib Singh Ahom State
  Durgawati Garha Katanga

Q. 2. Complete the following :
(a) The new caste emerging within varnas were called ______ .
(b) ______ were historical work written by Ahoms.
(c) The ______ mention that Garha Katanga had 7000 villages.
(d) As tribal state became larger and stronger they gave land grant to ______ and ______ .

Ans. (a) The new castes emerging with in varna were called Jatis.
(b) Buranjis were historical accounts (works) written by Ahoms.
(c) The Akbar name mention that Garha Katanga had 70000 villages.
(d) As tribal state became bigger and stronger they gave land grant to poets and scholars.


Q. 3. How was the administration of Ahom state organised ?

Ans. (i) The Ahoms migrated to Brahmaputra valley from present day Mayanm mar in the 13th century and created a new kingdom or state by suppressing the order political system of landlords.
(ii) Ahom state depended upon forced labour and those who were force to work for state were known as paiks.
(iii) People from densely populated area were shifted to less populated places.
(iv) By the 17th century their administration become centralised.
(v) All adult male served in the army during war time.
(vi) Ahom society was divided into clans or khel which controlled several villages.


Q. 4. What do you know about Nomadic pastoralist ?

Ans. (i) Nomadic pastoralists moved over long distance with their animals.
(ii) They lived on milk and other pastoral products.
(iii) They also exchanged wool, ghee etc. with settled agriculturists for grain, cloth, utensils and products.
(iv) They bought and sold these products as they moved from one place to another transporting them on their animals.


Q. 5. Were the Banjaras important for the economy ?

Ans. Yes, they were important for economy. Following points proves it.
(i) Sultan Ala-ud-din khalji used them to transport grain to the city market.
(ii) Mughal Emperor Jahangir wrote in his memory that the Banjaras carried grain on their bullocks from different areas and sold it into the town.
(iii) Various castes of petty pedlars also travelled from village to village and they made and sold wares.





Q. 1. What do you know about Tribal societies ?

Ans. Many social societies of the sub-continent do not follow social rule and rituals as laid down by Brahamans. They were divided into numerous unequal class, such societies are describe as tribes.
(i) Members of the tribes were united by kinship bonds.
(ii) They (Tribals) obtained their foods from agriculture.
(iii) A tribal group controlled land and pastures jointly and divided these amongst household according to its own rule.
(iv) Tribal lived in forest, hill, deserts and places difficult to reach.
(v) Caste based and tribal societies depended on each other for their diverse needs.
(vi) In various they retained their freedom and preserved their separated culture.


Q. 2. What do you know about the administrative system of the Gonds ?

Ans. (i) The administrative system of these kingdoms was became centralised.
(ii) Each kingdom was divided into garhs which was controlled by a particular Gond clan.
(iii) Each Garhs was divided into units of 84 village known as chaurasi and they were further sub-divided into barhots made up of 12 villages.
(iv) The emergence of large states changed the nature of Gond society and basically equal society gradually get divided into unequal social classes.