Posters are a powerful means of making an announcement or an appeal or issuing a notice. They are also used for advertising a product and also for awareness campaigns on the issues related to public interest. It is usually brief and contains visuals and captions written in big size so as to attract attention.
A poster has no fixed format. However, it must include the following —
— Main topic/Event/Theme
— Date, time and venue (in case of event/occasion)
— Appeal/Awareness message /caution. (as per the case)
— Issuing organisation
Layout — Normally, one full page should be used to make a poster. However, for practical purposes (other than examination), posters are of much bigger size and generally colourful.
Samples of a few posters are being given in for the benefit of the students.
Society Prevention of Cruelty to animals,
A pamphlet is just like a poster except that it is smaller in size and meant for circulation. It is not put up on boards or walls. It is distributed by hand, or inverted in newspapers. Unlike the poster, it may not use any visual at all. It has no specific format, but of course it should include the basic information just as in case of the poster.
1. COMPOSITION BASED ON
1. You have to address your class about the precautions and measures to be taken against malaria which is spreading in your town. Here are a few ideas to help you. Write the speech in your answer sheet in not more than 150 words using these ideas and also your own as well as those given in the unit 'Health and Medicine'.
Prevention is better than cure—cleanliness—in and outside the house—no water logging—mosquito nets—DDT spray—flitting—full sleeves—full pants—covers.
Today, as you all know, we are facing a grave health problem. Malaria is spreading like wild fire in our town. Who is responsible for this ? Infact all the people can be held responsible for giving breeding conditions to the mosquitoes. ‘Prevention is better than cure’ should be our top priority. We should not allow the mosquito breeding grounds to flourish. This will help us in checking the disease caused by them. Other breeding grounds like garbage mounds should not be allowed to come up. We must not forget the school-time saying that Cleanliness is next to Godliness. We must ensure that water logging does not take place. Water should not be allowed to stagnate. If it does, it must be sprayed with chemicals like DDT, and flitting with mosquito repellents should be undertaken.
While sleeping we must wear full sleeve shirts and use mosquito nets. Wire-meshing of the windows and doors must be undertaken. No part of the body should be allowed to remain exposed to the mosquitoes. We must keep in mind that if malaria is contracted, it makes us undergo days of suffering. If these simple precautions are practised, we will surely be successful in checking malaria, thus saving ourselves from the menace
2. You are Pawan/Preeti. Prepare a speech to be presented in your school's Science Day celebrations on how Science or Technology can be misused in different ways by which we may lose our greatest wealth of health. You may use the ideas from the visual given below and your own ideas to prepare the speech. Your speech should not exceed 150 words.
→ Unhygienic Junk food
→ Pesticides in Plantations and Perfumes
→ Chemicals in Cosmetics
→ Toxins in Soft drinks
→ Artificial measures to ripen fruits and promote yield from fields.
Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends,
There is no doubt today that science and technology have played a wonderful role in our lives. But the misuse has adversely affected our health. We get off-season fruits, vegetables and other agricultural produce by its use. We have insecticides and pesticides to increase agricultural produce. We have soft drinks to give us content in very hot summer season as well as a variety of instant foods according to our taste buds. For beauty and make up we have a variety of creams and cosmetics. But we don't think about the side-effects of these ‘blessings’ on our health. Junk food causes obesity, diabetes and indigestion.
Pesticides cause various diseases. Chemicals in cosmetics play havoc with our skins. Toxins in soft drinks cause stomach diseases like ulcers, intestinal infections. Off-season fruits which are ripened by artificial measures have ill effects on our body.
So, we can say that science and technology have been misused by the money-minded business houses. The public health is in serious danger. Public health is precious and the Govt. should ensure to protect it and take remedial steps.
3. Philip is class X student. He happened to read the following newspaper article. He decided to write a letter to the editor of ‘The Indian Times’ giving his strong views on the health hazards caused by pesticides. Using ideas from the unit on ‘Health and Hygiene’, together with your own ideas, write the letter in not more than 150 words.
THERE IS POISON IN YOU
It’s there in your water, milk, fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, flour and now soft drinks. For sometime now evidence about the harmful effect of pesticides has been mounting. From brainless babies in one part of the country and cancer cases in the other part, it’s been an unending saga of death and misery.
Police Public School,
April 10, 200...
The Indian Times
Sub : Pesticides – a health menace
Through the pages of your reputed newspaper I want to share my concern about the health hazards of pesticides. An article published recently in your newspaper made it clear that no edible product is safe for health and that all our daily consumable products, starting from water, milk, fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, flour etc. have pesticides beyond permissible limits. The presence of pesticides in these products is the direct cause of many of our respiratory and digestive disorders and even deadly diseases like cancer. A recent report has confirmed that soft drinks contain excessive and harmful pesticides.
It is high time that we realise the benefits of and lay stress on organic farming. We should try to minimize the use of pesticides. The government should take immediate steps to ensure that no product, particularly soft drinks, has harmful and excessive pesticides.
I hope that the public may become aware of the gravity of the situation if you publish this article in your editorial pages.
4. Vineet/Vani Prasad of 29, Rajpura Road, Ambala, comes across the following poster in the newspaper. He/She is concerned about the spread of diseases during summers and decides to write a letter to the editor of a National Daily highlighting the impending possibility of water borne diseases and the dire need for creating awareness about the prevention of such diseases through such informative posters. Using your own ideas and the ideas from the unit on ‘Health’, write Vineet’s/Vani’s letter in not more than 150 words.
...And Also the Possibility of Diseases Like Cholera and Gastroenteritis
Prevention is Better Than Cure
3 Drink only safe water
3 Keep food items covered
3 Eat only freshly cooked food
3 Wash hands before preparing or eating food...
If patient is restless/unconscious, has fever/blood in stool, is eating/drinking poorly,
CONSULT THE DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY
Use Oral Rehydration Solution — Available at All Health Centres Free of Cost
29, Rajpura Road,
Ambala - 131 005
December 1st, 200....
The Hindustan Times
Sub : Prevention of Water borne diseases
This is in reference to the poster which appeared in the columns of your newspaper recently regarding impending possibility of water borne diseases in the ensuing summer season. Generally all the items become infected with bacteria because they remain uncovered, more so in the summers. Most often we become so thirsty that we need water immediately. Consequently we take it without keeping in view its cleanliness and purity. Thereby, diseases like cholera, gastroenteritis. dysenrty and loose motions, etc. disturb the general health and hygiene of all. All this is due to sheer carelessness on our part. As we know, the rising heat gives birth to these diseases and precaution is a must on our part to save ourselves. In this connection certain suggestions are being given for the careful attention of all –
1. Always keep a bottle of pure water in the bag when not in home.
2. Use towels, if possible, wet towels on your head to save yourself from the scorching heat.
3. Do not buy eatables from the market.
4. Use fresh vegetables and avoid junk food.
5. Clean your mouth and eyes with pure water.
6. Consult the doctor in case of any problem.
7. Use Oral Rehydration Solution (O.R.S.). It is available at all health centres free of cost.
I hope you will publish my views in order to create awareness in the public for proper maintenance of health and hygiene of one and all.
5. Recently Geetha saw an advertisement in the newspaper that read ‘‘How to look young’’ After reading it she feels strongly about the use of synthetic creams and dyes to make people look young, and writes a letter about it to the Editor of the newspaper “The Herald” on ‘How to keep fit and be young ?
‘Write this letter in your answer sheet in not more than 150 words using information from the newspaper advertisement together with your own ideas and the ideas from the unit on Health and Medicine.
B, 16, Green park
April 17, 200...
Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper I want to express my views on an advertisement 'How to look young’. It is a matter of grave concern that many people use synthetic creams and dyes to look young. However, it is a known fact that these creams and dyes have very dangerous ingredients that have adverse effect on us. For example, dyes have a propensity to cause paralytic strokes. Moreover, every kind of synthetic cream leaves scars on the face with the passage of time. Still these are selling and the government is also doing nothing about it.
We must not forget that there are numerous ways to maintain one's physique and look young. Regularity of exercises, yoga, meditation, proper food and discipline in life go a long way to achieve it. I feel that if one does yoga daily and restricts one’s diet, one can not only look pretty young, but also enjoy the overall benefits of good health. If the mind is controlled one can manage to look young with proper diet. Our literature is replete with numberless precepts showing how one can remain young despite one's age. Our sages and saints looked young despite their ages. This was all due to their strict control over habits and diets. They never knew the present day dyes and synthetic creams.
6. You are Ganesh/Gomti, the elder brother/sister of Kumar who is in Class XII pursuing his studies in the Commerce stream. Kumar seeks you guidance regarding his under graduation studies. He is not sure if he should pursue his under graduation in India or abroad. Write a letter to him in about 150 words, advising him to pursue his course in India. You may use your own ideas, along with the ideas from the unit on 'Education' and the ideas given below.
Innumerable courses in India — low and affordable course fees — emotional security — backing from parents, friends and relatives — no culture crisis — son of the soil — job opportunities high — more industrial and economic development — low cost of living.
23, XYZ Colony,
Aug. 23rd, 200....
I am very happy that you have sought my advice and guidance to pursue your under graduation course either in India or abroad. I can understand that you are double-minded regarding this crucial decision. But in my view, though you might be zealous to go abroad, think of India, which is the breeder of all knowledge and education. It is a culturally rich country that has produced eminent personalities of world fame in varied fields. In India we have innumerable courses in the different states that provide expert knowledge to the students. Moreover, the charges are very much low and affordable as compared to the study in foreign countries. Apart from that, think of the benefits and social and emotional security of living near your loved ones.
In foreign countries, there is no religion, caste, culture or ancient tradition. So, much so, even the youth do not pay reverence to their parents and elders. Western fashion, their ideology, illicit relations, open friendship etc. will mar your character. Everything is safe in India. It is the country where the foreigners visit to get education, peace and renunciation. Here the cost of living is very low and one can make one's both ends meet at the minimum expenditure easily as our wants are very few while life abroad is highly costly. The culture, language problem and home sickness will go on tormenting you.
India is a fast developing country having a huge variety of career avenues. By studying hard, we can become the master of our own destiny and also give employment to others. You must realise that opportunities are much more in developing countries as compared to that in de eloped countries. So advise you to study in India and serve India. Write to me what you decide.
7. Your happened to overhear the following dialogue :
Suresh : School is so boring nowadays.
Rakesh : We are treated as machines and fed on mere facts.
Suresh : I hope the classes were more interesting.
Write a letter to the District Education Officer suggesting how the educational curriculum could be made more flexible and relevant to the changing economy and environment. Use ideas from the unit on 'education' along with your own ideas. Limit the letter to 150 words.
64, XYZ Colony
12 July 200...
The District Education Officer
Sub. : Curriculum as per changing times
I am writing this after I overheard two young boys discussing that going to school is a 'boring affair’ and that they find learning a mechanical activity as the teachers stuff the students with facts and figures only.
Today, the growing frustration among the students is quite understandable. School going students are burdened with books, tests and exams and their only concern is to secure good marks. So instead of generating interest in them, learning has become a burden for them. Learning for the sake of gaining knowledge is almost non-existent. Today's student is required to cram and reproduce certain pieces of information and worse still, he has to agree with what is printed in the books. Thus, his creativity is stifled.
Sir, I think you will agree with me that the time has come to review and renew the curriculum to make it life-oriented and suitable to the changing times. More interactive activities should be included in the curriculum to make studies interesting. The prescribed books should be relevant to the changing economy and environment of the country. It is high time that we begin now in right earnest, as it is already too late.
8. You are Somesh. Write a letter to your friend Mukesh giving the details of gadgets used in your house stating the benefits you have from using them and harms if any. You may take help from the following notes and use the information learnt in the unit 'Science'. Write your answer in your answer sheet in not more than 150 words.
Stapling machine—nail clippers—plastic ruler—ceiling fan—binoculars—key chains—table lamp.
49, Udham Singh Nagar,
Feb. 22nd, 200...
I received your letter and agree to your opinion that we have become slaves to the modern gadgets used in the houses. But I think we can't do without them. They are beneficial in their own ways and save us a plenty of time. In the modern age, everyone is very busy and the element of time has become very important. So modern gadgets have become an integral part of life today.
Think of the difficulties we would come across in case these gadgets were not there. We need a stapling machine when we have to staple papers. We use the nail clipper to clip our nails. It is wonderful that these gadgets do the required work nicely and quickly. No student can do without a plastic ruler or a home without a ceiling fan. Keys in the house will lie scattered without key chains. Also, a table lamp is used as it doesn't allow light to scatter. Others can sleep peacefully while a student reads at a table. All these gadgets are used in my house and I think these have made our lives easy and comfortable.
As far as these simple gadgets are concerned, I do not find any harm in them. Infact, their benefits are so many that harms; if any, may be overlooked. I shall be happy to receive your comments, if any. Please pay my regards to your parents.
9. Pranav is a student of Class IX. After reading the following newspaper article, he writes a letter to the Editor of a local newspaper giving his strong views on the subject. Using ideas from the unit on 'Environment', together with your own ideas, complete this letter in your answer sheet using not more that 150 words.
Beauty Without Cruelty
.......For centuries, it has been a custom of man to ruthlessly and wantonly kill animals, such as fox, deer, elephants, snakes to adorn himself. The most ignominious shopping list of creams, chess pieces, belts, buttons, jewellery, purses, caps etc. are all made from animals.
April 16th, 200...
I happened to come across an article in your newspaper regarding how various animals are being killed to make items of fashions. It is really deplorable that for a few fashion-crazy people animals are being killed mercilessly. This is destroying the ecological balance which is very important for human life.
As all of us are aware, environmental pollution is a dangerous development of the scientific and industrial growth. Forests are being cleared for setting up various industrial units which is destroying the natural habitat of animals, thus leading to their destruction and ultimate extinction.
Thus, it becomes imperative that poaching of various animals for fashions must be banned completely and the offenders be severely punished. The authorities must wake up to the situation and fulfil their responsibility to the best of their abilities. The government should also pass strict laws and see to it that they are being strictly enacted.
10. Your are Captain of Everest House of your school. Write a speech to be delivered at the morning assembly about noise pollution, interpreting the data given below. Also, give your suggestions on how it can be curbed. Write your answer in your answer sheet in not more than 150 words.
Loudness of sound
during day (in decibels)
Loudness of sound during
night (in decibels)
|According to WHO, for sound health, loudness of sound during days should not exceed 55 decibels and during nights it should not exceed 35 decibels.|
Respected Principal, worthy teachers and my dear friends,
Today I am speaking on noise pollution, which has assumed dangerous proportions. As you will be aware, the World Health Organisation has stated that for sound health, loudness of sound during days should not exceed 55 decibels, and during nights it should not exceed 35 decibels. But in our metropolitan cities this level far exceeds the levels as prescribed by WHO. Kolkata tops the list with 86 decibels and 72 decibels during the day and night respectively. Chennai has 78 and 73, Mumbai 77 and 67 and lastly Delhi 73 and 68 during day and night respectively. The situation is clearly getting out of control.
Millions of people in these cities have already been affected by the high noise level. The deaf cases have increased five or six times. Noise, you all know, causes irritation, anger, helplessness and depression. In many cases; it also increases blood pressure. The pressure horns are the deadliest of all kinds of sound pollution. Music bands, loudspeakers atop religious places, rattling bus bodies etc., are other sources of sound pollution. If something is not done soon, a majority of the population shall suffer from the effects of this sound pollution. Strict action is needed to contain this pollution. Erring vehicle drivers should be booked under the rules. Persons managing religious places should be asked to play loudspeakers within the prescribed levels.
I also feel that the common man also has a role to play. Our system is such that till a complaints is officially made, generally, no action is even initiated. So, all of us must make it a point to complain against the offenders. We may also contact newspaper authorities to get our complaints published, which will prompt the Government to take action.
11. You are Sonia Dev, Secretary 'Save the Child Foundation'. You are a social activist working for the welfare of children in the develop world. As you travel to many developing countries, you have collected the following fact sheet. Read it carefully and write a letter in 150-200 words to the editor of 'The Daily Mirror' highlighting the problems of childhood and how these can be solved.
SAVE THE CHILD FOUNDATION
10, Tilak Nagar
April 23rd, 200...
The Daily Mirror
Sub : Problems of childhood in the developing world
Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I would like to express my views on the welfare and future of the children in the developing world.
A great number of children in the developing world are leading a miserable life. The data collected by our organisation shows the pathetic conditions which present a very gloomy future of the children in our country. More than one in three children do not have adequate shelter. One in five children does not have assess to safe water. One in seven has no access to health services. Many of them suffer from one or the other ailment, and millions of them die because they are not immunized properly with routine vaccines. Apart from all this, as many as 121 million children, the majority of them girls, do not attend school. My heart cries at all this.
There is no denying the fact that children are our future. So, the government should make education compulsory for children, no matter whatever the cost. If only 0×5 percent of global military spending were diverted to immunization, every child in the world could be immunized over the next decade.
We all should unite in making a happy and prosperous world for our children.
12. You are Manav. You are terribly upset at the killings which take place in Kashmir. Write a letter, in not more than 150 words to the editor of a newspaper based on the news item given below.
23 KILLED IN POONCH
Poonch : April 1, 23 were killed in Poonch when militants opened fire at a group of people taking part in a marriage ceremony.
23 Apsara Colony,
April 7th, 200...
The Times of India,
23 people were killed in Poonch, including women and children on April 1st. I feel pained that marriage, an occasion of celebration and happiness, was turned into a day of death and mourning by the terrorists. It is a matter of great pity that scores of people are dying everyday at the hands of militants.
In the prevalent local conditions, the people of Kashmir are scared and tense. They are living under the shadow of death. They go through life everyday wondering if it will be their last day. They are disillusioned with the governments of both India and Pakistan. Infact, the political conflict between India and Pakistan has turned Kashmir into hell. Apart from that, the senseless killings have destroyed Kashimir's tourism industry, which is the main source of livelihood for the local people, who are now facing grave economic problems.
It is the government’s responsibility to restore normalcy in Kashmir. The leaders of both the countries should bring their heads together and find a permanent solution to the problem through a meaningful dialogue. The killings have to be stopped for once and all, as they serve no purpose and cause misery to one and all.
13. The following is an extract from the telephone conversation between John and Dr. Mathew, an eye-specialist. You are John, Write a letter to your friend in not more than 150 words.
John : Could I speak to Dr. Mathew please ?
Dr. Mathew : Speaking.
John : My friend Robin, living a nearby village, Gulabpura wants to get his cataract removed. When can he come for the operation ?
Dr. Mathew : Send him the day after tomorrow for check-up. If needed, we shall do the operation the next day.
John : Dr. Mathew, what should he bring with him ?
Dr. Mathew : Ask him to come with an escort.
23, XYZ, Colony,
April 14th, 200...
I hope that all is fine with you and your family. After receiving your letter I talked to Dr. Mathew about your problem. I am glad to write that Dr. Mathew has called for you the day after tomorrow for a check-up. He says that when you come for a check-up, your cataract will be examined thoroughly, and if needed he shall operate on your eye the very next day, I regret that I have to go out for some official work that day. So I shall not be able to be with you. But there is nothing to worry about. You can come to our house the day after tomorrow in the morning. I shall take you to the clinic for the check-up. But after that I would proceed with my official work as there is some very important business to attend. Please don't forget to bring one member of your family with you.
Nation celebrates 125th Gandhi Jayanti
NEW DELHI, October 2. The Nation paid homage to the father of the nation on his 125th birth anniversary. Many public functions were held. Leading politicians made inspiring speeches. The film 'Gandhi' will be screened...
You are Sunita, an admirer of Gandhiji. After reading the above newspaper clipping you are disturbed. Write a letter to the editor of the paper expressing your views on how the nation should pay homage to Gandhi on his 125th year. Write your answer in your answer sheet in not more that 150 words.
October 5th, 200...
I read a newspaper report two days back regarding how the nation paid homage to the Father of the Nation on his 125th birth anniversary with leading politicians giving inspiring speeches and screening of the film 'Gandhi'. I feel that this formal way is not a right one to pay homage to this great son of the Indian soil. Mahatma Gandhi identified himself with the Indian masses and had a vision to improve the conditions of the masses. He wanted to uplift the masses and had many programmes in mind. Giving formal speeches and holding of various public functions is not at all a befitting way to pay homage to the Great man. The real way lies in introducing various schemes to transform the country as per his vision. These are like bridging the gap between 'haves' and 'haven'ts' and removal of illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. In that way we would be paying a befitting homage to this great man.
16. Given below is an extract from an article in 'Newsweek' :
|'For years, I ate fast food because it was efficient and cheap. I had no idea I could be damaging my health' says Ceasar Barbar, 56, a maintenance worker with heart disease.|
Write a letter to the editor of the newspaper on the health hazards caused by junk food using your own ideas and ideas from the unit on 'Health and Medicine'.
September 22nd, 200...
I wish to enlighten the general public about the health hazards of junk food through the columns of your esteemed magazine. The junk food, popularly known as 'fast food' is becoming very popular among the youth. It is, no doubt delicious but it has not much nutritional value. Moreover, it is not hygienically prepared. The sole emphasis is on exploiting the tastes of the youth.
All this leads to various diseases like indigestion, gastritis, flatulences, nausea and vomiting etc. Soon these diseases lead to other diseases and the health is destroyed slowly due to this junk food. The Delhi Govt., by banning this junk food in its schools, has set a good example.
I would like to urge the youth community to desist fast food and discourage the people who are involved, in any way, in preparing and selling it.